The Mobile Internet manifests itself by its ubiquitous high-speed Internet access and abundant types of
mobile applications and services. Wi-Fi networks work as a supplement to 3G/LTE networks and balances
the load of 3G/LTE networks. Due to their low cost and high bandwidth, Wi-Fi networks are widely
popular and widely deployed in public places such as shopping malls, bars, hotels, and public squares.
A stadium is a typical high-density hotspot for a Wi-Fi network offering the following functions:
First, a Wi-Fi network facilitates communications between the stadium, fan club, and fans. With the
help of a Wi-Fi network, the fans can access the local video server to relay the game and to interact
with family members, friends, and other club members through social networking websites (microblog,
WeChat, and Facebook). Through the stadium APP, the audience can query club or team member
information, learn real-time game statistics, or obtain a schedule.
Second, a Wi-Fi network helps deliver business services by allowing an audience member to query and
purchase game or concert tickets online or order food through a customized stadium APP during a game
or concert. After the vendor receives the order, it will send the food directly to the fan. At the entrance or
garage, the audience can use the indoor navigation system to find their seat or parking place.
Third, a Wi-Fi network increases stadium revenue by providing value-added services or by pushing
advertising. Game reports and advertisements can be planted directly onto the Portal access page,
stadium APP page, Wi-Fi SSID, or browser page, creating additional income for the stadium.
Last, a Wi-Fi network offers stadium employees a mobile office platform on which voice communications,
mobile office applications, and other mobile communications are available for security personnel, sales
staff, and game organizers, a great convenience for doing their job.
Unlike common office networks, the stadium Wi-Fi network is characterized by high-density, large
capacity, and real-time service delivery, which makes its deployment complicated and demanding.
More specifically, the deployment of a Wi-Fi network in a stadium faces the following challenges:
First of all, the greatest challenge is the extremely high user density. Most stadiums have tens of
thousands of seats; some world-renowned football stadiums are equipped with over 80,000 seats.
Therefore, user density will be dozens or hundreds of times greater than in offices, dormitories, and
High user density requires that a Wi-Fi network provide large bandwidth and reliable core nodes, and be
robust enough to defend against potential security threats from internal network terminals. Additionally,
terminal behaviors must be effectively controlled on the Wi-Fi network.
Considering the enormous variety of users, terminals, services, and locations, a stadium Wi-Fi network
must be able to recognize user identities, control user access, and deliver differentiated services.
Based on an analysis of stadium Wi-Fi network characteristics and deployment challenges, a stadium Wi-Fi network
design involves three steps: designing a smart network with flexible user control, constructing a high-density Wi-Fi
network, and deploying agile network.
To fit well into a high-density stadium, a Wi-Fi network solution must offer end-to-end support capabilities and
a comprehensive guarantee process that includes product capability, network planning, network deployment,
configuration optimization, and testing and verification. Most importantly, the products and devices used
must support high-density features and large bandwidth. In short, a Wi-Fi network plan must match stadium
characteristics and access scenarios.
Huawei WLAN products integrate the latest 802.11 technologies, among which 802.11n, 802.11ac, MIMO, and
implicit Beamforming greatly improve network throughput; also, a smart scheduling mechanism enables highdensity access. The following paragraphs describe some of the scheduling technologies in detail:
If low-rate terminals preempt the wireless channel
ahead of high-rate terminals, high-rate terminals
cannot operate at their maximum capacity. Airtime
scheduling technology allows high-rate terminals to
go first and periodically detects each terminal’s data
sending time. It assigns equal time to all terminals,
ensuring fairness in channel usage. With equal channel
occupation time, high-rate terminals have more
chances to transmit data.
APs implement cyclic scheduling of voice, video,
and data services at low, medium, and high rates.
The APs periodically detect terminal rates. A highspeed terminal is placed behind the low-rate ones if
it works at a lower speed. Huawei products support
the association between airtime scheduling and QoS
scheduling. For wireless services, QoS scheduling
(WMM) is implemented first, and then airtime
Movement of terminals within the stadium causes the
radio environment to change frequently. Auto Radio
adjusts the radio resources to ensure optimal access
and high user bandwidth.
Auto Radio technologies include dynamic channel
and power adjustment, dynamic load balancing, and
automatic Clear Channel Assessment (CCA). Huawei’s
CCA dynamically adjusts CCA threshold values based
on the radio environment to improve channel efficiency
and increase capacity.
Multi-user Connection Access Control (CAC) controls
user access based on the number of users connected
to APs and channel usage. Such control is especially
applicable to high-density scenarios. It can limit the
number of users occupying the AP bandwidth and thus
maximize user experience.
In a high-density scenario, some stations (STAs) may
attempt to associate with distant APs; therefore, the
APs may receive weak radio signals from the STAs.
After associating with the APs, these STAs work at low
rates, affecting overall network throughput. These
weak-signal or low-rate STAs can be prevented from
accessing the WLAN to reduce the impact of these
STAs on the network as well as improve the overall