A SMART GRID OVERVIEW
A Smart Grid is an electricity network that can intelligently integrate the actions of all users connected to it
An “electricity grid” is not a single entity but an aggregate of multiple networks. Smart Grid is important as it will take us towards energy independence and environmentally sustainable economic growth.
With this concept, the earlier power shortage has been to some extent equated and is able to control the trans- mission losses and improve the transmission efficiency to some extent. This contrasts with 60 percent efficiency for grids based on the latest technology which may be the solution for the above problem: SMARD GRID TECH- NOLOGIES.
Smart grid is referred to by other names including “Smart Electric Grid,” “Smart Power Grid,” “Intelligrid,” and “Future Grid”
A smart grid is an umbrella term that covers moder- nization of both the transmission and distribution grids. it increases the connectivity, automation and coordination between these suppliers, consumers and networks that perform either long dis- tance transmission or local distribution tasks
Some of the benefits of such a modernized electricity network include the ability to reduce power consumption at the consumer side during peak hours, called Demand side management; enabling grid connection of distributed generation power (with photovoltaic arrays, small wind turbines, micro hydro, or even combined heat power generators in buildings)
The basic components of Smart Grid is as shown in Figure 1.
The earliest, and still largest, example of a smart grid is the Italian system installed by Enel S. p. A. of Italy.
Completed in 2005, the Telegestore project was highly unusual in the utility world because the company design- ed and manufactured their own meters, acted as their own system integrator, and developed their own system software. The Telegestore project is widely regarded as the first commercial scale use of smart grid technology to the home
A model set up of Smart Grid including smart generation, smart transmission, smart storage, smart sensors to isolate the fault is given in Figure 2.
In order for the Smart Grids Vision to become a reality, a plan of actions is needed to allow the many facets of technical, regulatory, environmental and cultural issues to be addressed in an optimized manner.
Optimizing Grid Operation and Use
In order to manage the ever increasing demands for energy trading and security of supply, the existing transmission and distribution networks require improved integration and coordination
Optimizing Grid Infrastructure
New and efficient asset management solutions for the transmission and distribution grids are required, as well as coordinated and coherent grid infrastructure planning should be done.
Integrating Large Scale Intermittent Generation
Large-scale forms of generation, e.g. wind farms and in the future (concentrated) solar thermal generation, re- quire networks to enable efficient collection of the power generated and enable system balancing, either by energy storage, conventional generation or by demand side participation . Off-shore wind energy needs marine power collection networks and reinforcement of the terrestrial networks.
Information and Communication Technology
This is about defining the tasks and implementing the necessary standards for Information and Communication Technology (ICT) solutions in future Smart Grids. The application of ICT is a pre-requisite for data exchange between the different market players in the electricity supply chain and for the secure, economic and environ- mentally benign operation of Smart Grids.
Active Distribution Networks
Transmission networks have always provided a balancing and management role in the electric power supply chain, whereas distribution networks have been designed to be passive (“fit-and forget”) in operation. The challenge is now to provide many of the services found in transmission grids, such as power flow and constraint management, contingency analysis and balancing in distribution net- works.
New Market Places, Users and Energy Efficiency
Diminishing of the differences between transmission and distribution in areas such as ancillary services, grid con- nection and access, but also quality and security of supply is one of the important characteristics of the whole Smart Grids concept.
Conceptual Smart House
Smart home is becoming a reality in the developed world with Energy efficiency and reduction in Carbon foot- prints riding high on the agenda of most the Governments and States. A model set of it is as shown in Figure 3. The technological advances in Smart meters, internet communication and smart appliances has made it achievable and sustainable.
The list of Smart devices include:
Electricity Smart meter.
Gas Smart meter (more likely to communicate via Electricity Smart Meter).
Water Smart meter (more likely to communicate via Electricity Smart Meter).
Home Automation Gateway (more likely to communicate over internet and radio).
Home Smart Appliances (more likely to communicate over radio).
The evolution of Smart Power Grid System is still in it nascent stage. The whole power community is busy now in understanding and developing smart power grid system which is no longer a theme of future. This introductory is small but a very vital step towards achieving the ultimate goal of making a “National Grid” a reality.
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